Bartolomeo Manfredi, Apollo and Marsyas, 1616 - 20, oil on canvas, Saint Louis Art Museum, MO
Marsyas was a Phrygian satyr who first composed tunes for the flute. He obtained his instrument from Athena, who had invented the device but discarded it in her displeasure over the bloating effect on the cheeks. Later, in hubristic pride over the new-found music, Marsyas dared challenge the god Apollo to a contest. The Satyr inevitably lost, when, in the second round, the god demanded they play their instruments upsidedown—a feat ill-suited to the flute. As punishment for his presumption, Apollo had Marsyas tied to a tree and flayed him alive. The rustic gods in their pity then transformed him into a mountain stream.
(via Theoi Greek Mythology)